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  • Download images TOEFL READING 500
  • Download images TOEFL READING 500
  • Download images TOEFL READING 500
  • Download images TOEFL READING 500
  • Download images TOEFL READING 500
Test 1
Question 1-8
With Robert Laurent and William Zorach, direct carving enters into the story of
modern sculpture in the United States. Direct carving ―
in which the sculptors
themselves carve stone or wood with mallet and chisel ―
must be recognized as
something more than just a technique. Implicit in it is an aesthetic principle as well :
that the medium has certain qualities of beauty and expressiveness with which
sculptors must
ing their own aesthetic sensibilities into harmony. For example,
sometimes the shape or veining in a piece of stone or wood suggests, perhaps even
dictates, not only the ultimate form, but even the subject matter.
The technique of direct carving was a
eak with the nineteenth-century tradition in
which the making of a clay model was considered the creative act and the work was
then turned over to studio assistants to be cast in plaster or
onze or carved in ma
Neoclassical sculptors seldom held a mallet or chisel in their own hands, readily
conceding that the assistants they employed were far better than they were at carving
the finished ma
With the turn-of-the-century Crafts movement and the discovery of nontraditional
sources of inspiration, such as wooden African figures and masks, there arose a new
urge for hands-on, personal execution of art and an interaction with the medium. Even
as early as the 1880's and 1890's, nonconformist European artists were attempting
direct carving. By the second decade of the twentieth century, Americans ―
and Zorach most notably ―
had adopted it as their primary means of working.
Born in France, Robert Laurent(1890-1970)was a prodigy who received his
education in the United States. In 1905 he was sent to Paris as an apprentice to an art
dealer, and in the years that followed he witnessed the birth of Cubism, discovered
primitive art, and learned the techniques of woodcarving from a frame maker.
Back in New York City by 1910, Laurent began carving pieces such as The
Priestess, which reveals his fascination with African, pre-Columbian, and South
Pacific art. Taking a walnut plank, the sculptor carved the expressive, stylized design.
It is one of the earliest examples of direct carving in American sculpture. The plank's
form dictated the rigidly frontal view and the low relief. Even its i
egular shape must
have appealed to Laurent as a
eak with a long-standing tradition that required a
sculptor to work within a perfect rectangle or square.
1. The word “medium”in line 5 could be used to refer to
(A) stone or wood
(B) mallet and chisel
(C) technique
(D) principle
2. What is one of the fundamental principles of direct carving?
(A) A sculptor must work with talented assistants.
(B) The subject of a sculpture should be derived from classical stories.
(C) The material is an important element in a sculpture.
(D) Designing a sculpture is a more creative activity than carving it.
3. The word “dictates” in line 8 is closest in meaning to
(A) reads aloud
(B) determines
(C) includes
(D) records
4. How does direct carving differ from the nineteenth-century tradition
of sculpture?
(A) Sculptors are personally involved in the carving of a piece.
(B) Sculptors find their inspiration in neoclassical sources.
(C) Sculptors have replaced the mallet and chisel with other tools.
(D) Sculptors receive more formal training.
5.The word “witnessed”
in line 23 is closest in meaning to
(A) influenced
(B) studied
(C) validated
(D) observed
6. Where did Robert Laurent learn to carve?
(A) New York
(B) Africa
(C) The South Pacific
(D) Paris
7. The phrase “a
eak with ”in line 30 is closest in meaning to
(A) a destruction of
(B) a departure from
(C) a collapse of
(D) a solution to
8. The piece titled The Priestess has all of the following characteristics EXCEPT
(A) The design is stylized.
(B) It is made of ma
(C) The carving is not deep.
(D) It depicts the front of a person.
Question 9 - 19
Birds that feed in flocks commonly retire together into roosts. The reasons fo
communally are not always obvious, but there are some likely benefits.
In winte
especially, it is important for birds to keep warm at night and conserve precious food
eserves. One way to do this is to find a sheltered roost. Solitary roosters shelter in
dense vegetation or enter a cavity - horned larks dig holes in the ground and
ptarmigan bu
ow into snow banks - but the effect of sheltering is magnified by
several birds huddling together in the roosts, as wrens, swifts,
luebirds, and anis do. Body contact reduces the surface area exposed to the cold air,
so the birds keep each other warm. Two kinglets huddling together were found to
educe their heat losses by a quarter and three together saved a third of their heat.
The second possible benefit of communal roosts is that they act as “information
centers.” During the day, parties of birds will have spread out to forage over a
large area. When they return in the evening some will have fed well, but others may
have found little to eat. Some investigators have observed that when the birds set out
again next morning, those birds that did not feed well on the previous day appear to
follow those that did. The behavior of common and lesser kestrels may illustrate
different feeding behaviors of similar birds with different roosting habits. The common
kestrel hunts verte
ate animals in a small, familiar hunting ground, whereas the very
similar lesser kestrel feeds on insects over a large area. The common kestrel roosts and
hunts alone, but the lesser kestrel roosts and hunts in flocks, possibly so one bird can
learn from others where to find insect swarms.
Finally, there is safety in numbers at communal roosts since there will always be a
few birds awake at any given moment to give the alarm. But this increased protection is
partially counteracted by the fact that mass roosts attract predators and are especially
vulnerable if they are on the ground. Even those in trees can be attacked by birds of
prey. The birds on the edge are at greatest risk since predators find it easier to catch
small birds perching at the margins of the roost.
9. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) How birds find and store food
(B) How birds maintain body heat in the winte
(C) Why birds need to establish te
(D) Why some species of birds nest togethe
10. The word “conserve ”in line 3 is closest in meaning to
(A) retain
(B) watch
(C) locate
(D) share
11. Ptarmigan keep warm in the winter by
(A) huddling together on the ground with other birds
(B) building nests in trees
(C) bu
owing into dense patches of vegetation
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