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[Ebook] Cẩm nang dành cho người mới làm quen với Python
Acknowledgments xxix Introduction xxxi
Chapter 1: Programming Basics and Strings 1 How Programming Is Different from Using a Computer 1 Programming Is Consistency 2 Programming Is Control 2 Programming Copes with Change 2 What All That Means Together 3 The First Steps 3 Starting codeEditor 3 Using codeEditor’s Python Shell 4 Try It Out: Starting the Python Shell 4 Beginning to Use Python—Strings 5 What Is a String? 5 Why the Quotes? 6 Try It Out: Entering Strings with Different Quotes 6 Understanding Different Quotes 6 Putting Two Strings Together 8 Try It Out: Using + to Combine Strings 8 Putting Strings Together in Different Ways 9 Try It Out: Using a Format Specifier to Populate a String 9 Try It Out: More String Formatting 9 Displaying Strings with Print 10 Try It Out: Printing Text with Print 10 Summary 10 Exercises 11
Chapter 2: Numbers and Operators 13 Different Kinds of Numbers 13 Numbers in Python 14 Try It Out: Using Type with Different Numbers 14 Try It Out: Creating an Imaginary Number 15
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Program Files 15 Try It Out: Using the Shell with the Editor 16 Using the Different Types 17 Try It Out Including Different Numbers in Strings 18 Try It Out: Escaping the % Sign in Strings 18 Basic Math 19 Try It Out Doing Basic Math 19 Try It Out: Using the Modulus Operation 20 Some Surprises 20 Try It Out: Printing the Results 21 Using Numbers 21 Order of Evaluation 21 Try It Out: Using Math Operations 21 Number Formats 22 Try It Out: Using Number Formats 22 Mistakes Will Happen 23 Try It Out: Making Mistakes 23 Some Unusual Cases 24 Try It Out: Formatting Numbers as Octal and Hexadecimal 24 Summary 24 Exercises 25
Chapter 3: Variables—Names for Values 27 Referring to Data – Using Names for Data 27 Try It Out: Assigning Values to Names 28 Changing Data Through Names 28 Try It Out: Altering Named Values 29 Copying Data 29 Names You Can’t Use and Some Rules 29 Using More Built-in Types 30 Tuples—Unchanging Sequences of Data 30 Try It Out: Creating and Using a Tuple 30 Try It Out: Accessing a Tuple Through Another Tuple 31 Lists—Changeable Sequences of Data 33 Try It Out Viewing the Elements of a List 33 Dictionaries—Groupings of Data Indexed by Name 34 Try It Out: Making a Dictionary 34 Try It Out: Getting the Keys from a Dictionary 35 Treating a String Like a List 36 Special Types 38
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Other Common Sequence Properties 38 Referencing the Last Elements 38 Ranges of Sequences 39 Try It Out: Slicing Sequences 39 Growing Lists by Appending Sequences 40 Using Lists to Temporarily Store Data 40 Try It Out: Popping Elements from a List 40 Summary 41 Exercises 42
Chapter 4: Making Decisions 43 Comparing Values—Are They the Same? 43 Try It Out: Comparing Values for Sameness 43 Doing the Opposite—Not Equal 45 Try It Out: Comparing Values for Difference 45 Comparing Values—Which One Is More? 45 Try It Out: Comparing Greater Than and Less Than 45 More Than or Equal, Less Than or Equal 47 Reversing True and False 47 Try It Out: Reversing the Outcome of a Test 47 Looking for the Results of More Than One Comparison 48 How to Get Decisions Made 48 Try It Out: Placing Tests within Tests 49 Repetition 51 How to Do Something—Again and Again 51 Try It Out: Using a while Loop 51 Stopping the Repetition 52 Try It Out: Using else While Repeating 54 Try It Out: Using continue to Keep Repeating 54 Handling Errors 55 Trying Things Out 55 Try It Out: Creating an Exception with Its Explanation 56 Summary 57 Exercises 58
Chapter 5: Functions 59 Putting Your Program into Its Own File 59 Try It Out: Run a Program with Python -i 61
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Functions: Grouping Code under a Name 61 Try It Out: Defining a Function 61 Choosing a Name 62 Describing a Function in the Function 63 Try It Out: Displaying __doc__ 63 The Same Name in Two Different Places 64 Making Notes to Yourself 65 Try It Out: Experimenting with Comments 65 Asking a Function to Use a Value You Provide 66 Try It Out Invoking a Function with Parameters 67 Checking Your Parameters 68 Try It Out: Determining More Types with the type Function 69 Try It Out: Using Strings to Compare Types 69 Setting a Default Value for a Parameter—Just in Case 70 Try It Out: Setting a Default Parameter 70 Calling Functions from within Other Functions 71 Try It Out: Invoking the Completed Function 72 Functions Inside of Functions 72 Flagging an Error on Your Own Terms 73 Layers of Functions 74 How to Read Deeper Errors 74 Summary 75 Exercises 76
Chapter 6: Classes and Objects 79 Thinking About Programming 79 Objects You Already Know 79 Looking Ahead: How You Want to Use Objects 81 Defining a Class 81 How Code Can Be Made into an Object 81 Try It Out: Defining a Class 82 Try It Out: Creating an Object from Your Class 82 Try It Out: Writing an Internal Method 84 Try It Out: Writing Interface Methods 85 Try It Out: Using More Methods 87 Objects and Their Scope 89 Try It Out: Creating Another Class 89 Summary 92 Exercises 93
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Chapter 7: Organizing Programs 95 Modules 96 Importing a Module So That You Can Use It 96 Making a Module from Pre-existing Code 97 Try It Out: Creating a Module 97 Try It Out: Exploring Your New Module 98 Using Modules—Starting With the Command Line 99 Try It Out: Printing sys.argv 100 Changing How Import Works—Bringing in More 101 Packages 101 Try It Out: Making the Files in the Kitchen Class 102 Modules and Packages 103 Bringing Everything into the Current Scope 103 Try It Out: Exporting Modules from a Package 104 Re-importing Modules and Packages 104 Try It Out: Examining sys.modules 105 Basics of Testing Your Modules and Packages 106 Summary 106 Exercises 107
Chapter 8: Files and Directories 109 File Objects 109 Writing Text Files 110 Reading Text Files 111 Try It Out: Printing the Lengths of Lines in the Sample File 112 File Exceptions 113 Paths and Directories 113 Paths 114 Directory Contents 116 Try It Out: Getting the Contents of a Directory 116 Try It Out: Listing the Contents of Your Desktop or Home Directory 118 Obtaining Information about Files 118 Recursive Directory Listings 118 Renaming, Moving, Copying, and Removing Files 119 Example: Rotating Files 120 Creating and Removing Directories 121 Globbing 122
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Pickles 123 Try It Out: Creating a Pickle File 123 Pickling Tips 124 Efficient Pickling 125 Summary 125 Exercises 125
Chapter 9: Other Features of the Language 127 Lambda and Filter: Short Anonymous Functions 127 Reduce 128 Try It Out: Working with Reduce 128 Map: Short-Circuiting Loops 129 Try It Out: Use Map 129 Decisions within Lists—List Comprehension 130 Generating Lists for Loops 131 Try It Out: Examining an xrange Object 132 Special String Substitution Using Dictionaries 133 Try It Out: String Formatting with Dictionaries 133 Featured Modules 134 Getopt—Getting Options from the Command Line 134 Using More Than One Process 137 Threads—Doing Many Things in the Same Process 139 Storing Passwords 140 Summary 141 Exercises 142
Chapter 10: Building a Module 143 Exploring Modules 143 Importing Modules 145 Finding Modules 145 Digging through Modules 146 Creating Modules and Packages 150 Try It Out: Creating a Module with Functions 150 Working with Classes 151 Defining Object-Oriented Programming 151 Creating Classes 151 Try It Out: Creating a Meal Class 152 Extending Existing Classes 153
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