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TOEFL READING 500

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  • TOEFL READING 500
  • TOEFL READING 500
  • TOEFL READING 500
  • TOEFL READING 500
  • TOEFL READING 500

TOEFL READING 500

Loại tài liệu : .pdf Dung lượng:0.28 M Lần download: 113 lần Chi phí: Miễn phí, download free

ThuVienMienPhi.com mang đến mội người tài liệu TOEFL READING 500 : Test một Question 1-8 With Robert Laurent and William Zorach, direct carving enters into the story of modern sculpture in the United States, ngoài ra Direct carving ― in which the sculptors themselves carve stone or wood with mallet and chisel ― must be recognized as Line something more than just a technique, ý nữa Implicit in it is an aesthetic principle as well : (5) that the medium has certain qualities of beauty and expressiveness with which sculptors must bring their own aesthetic sensibilities into harmony, ngoài ra For example, sometimes the shape or veining in a piece of stone or wood suggests, perhaps even dic

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Test 1
Question 1-8
With Robert Laurent and William Zorach, direct carving enters into the story of
modern sculpture in the United States. Direct carving
in which the sculptors
themselves carve stone or wood with mallet and chisel
must be recognized as
Line
something more than just a technique. Implicit in it is an aesthetic principle as well :
(5)
that the medium has certain qualities of beauty and expressiveness with which
sculptors must bring their own aesthetic sensibilities into harmony. For example,
sometimes the shape or veining in a piece of stone or wood suggests, perhaps even
dictates, not only the ultimate form, but even the subject matter.
The technique of direct carving was a break with the nineteenth-century tradition in
(10)
which the making of a clay model was considered the creative act and the work was
then turned over to studio assistants to be cast in plaster or bronze or carved in marble.
Neoclassical sculptors seldom held a mallet or chisel in their own hands, readily
conceding that the assistants they employed were far better than they were at carving
the finished marble.
(15)
With the turn-of-the-century Crafts movement and the discovery of nontraditional
sources of inspiration, such as wooden African figures and masks, there arose a new
urge for hands-on, personal execution of art and an interaction with the medium. Even
as early as the 1880's and 1890's, nonconformist European artists were attempting
direct carving. By the second decade of the twentieth century, Americans
Laurent
(20)
and Zorach most notably
had adopted it as their primary means of working.
Born in France, Robert Laurent(1890-1970)was a prodigy who received his
education in the United States. In 1905 he was sent to Paris as an apprentice to an art
dealer, and in the years that followed he witnessed the birth of Cubism, discovered
primitive art, and learned the techniques of woodcarving from a frame maker.
(25)
Back in New York City by 1910, Laurent began carving pieces such as The
Priestess, which reveals his fascination with African, pre-Columbian, and South
Pacific art. Taking a walnut plank, the sculptor carved the expressive, stylized design.
It is one of the earliest examples of direct carving in American sculpture. The plank's
form dictated the rigidly frontal view and the low relief. Even its irregular shape must
(30)
have appealed to Laurent as a break with a long-standing tradition that required a
sculptor to work within a perfect rectangle or square.
1. The word mediumin line 5 could be used to refer to
(A) stone or wood
(B) mallet and chisel
(C) technique
(D) principle
2. What is one of the fundamental principles of direct carving?
(A) A sculptor must work with talented assistants.
(B) The subject of a sculpture should be derived from classical stories.
(C) The material is an important element in a sculpture.
(D) Designing a sculpture is a more creative activity than carving it.
3. The word dictatesin line 8 is closest in meaning to
(A) reads aloud
(B) determines
(C) includes
(D) records
4. How does direct carving differ from the nineteenth-century tradition
of sculpture?
(A) Sculptors are personally involved in the carving of a piece.
(B) Sculptors find their inspiration in neoclassical sources.
(C) Sculptors have replaced the mallet and chisel with other tools.
(D) Sculptors receive more formal training.
5.The word witnessed
in line 23 is closest in meaning to
(A) influenced
(B) studied
(C) validated
(D) observed
6. Where did Robert Laurent learn to carve?
(A) New York
(B) Africa
(C) The South Pacific
(D) Paris
7. The phrase a break with in line 30 is closest in meaning to
(A) a destruction of
(B) a departure from
(C) a collapse of
(D) a solution to
8. The piece titled The Priestess has all of the following characteristics EXCEPT
(A) The design is stylized.
(B) It is made of marble.
(C) The carving is not deep.
(D) It depicts the front of a person.
Question 9 - 19
Birds that feed in flocks commonly retire together into roosts. The reasons for
roosting
communally are not always obvious, but there are some likely benefits.
In winter
especially, it is important for birds to keep warm at night and conserve precious food
Line
reserves. One way to do this is to find a sheltered roost. Solitary roosters shelter in
(5)
dense vegetation or enter a cavity - horned larks dig holes in the ground and
ptarmigan burrow into snow banks - but the effect of sheltering is magnified by
several birds huddling together in the roosts, as wrens, swifts, brown
creepers,
bluebirds, and anis do. Body contact reduces the surface area exposed to the cold air,
so the birds keep each other warm. Two kinglets huddling together were found to
(10)
reduce their heat losses by a quarter and three together saved a third of their heat.
The second possible benefit of communal roosts is that they act as information
centers.During the day, parties of birds will have spread out to forage over a
very
large area. When they return in the evening some will have fed well, but others may
have found little to eat. Some investigators have observed that when the birds set out
(15)
again next morning, those birds that did not feed well on the previous day appear to
follow those that did. The behavior of common and lesser kestrels may illustrate
different feeding behaviors of similar birds with different roosting habits. The common
kestrel hunts vertebrate animals in a small, familiar hunting ground, whereas the very
similar lesser kestrel feeds on insects over a large area. The common kestrel roosts and
(20)
hunts alone, but the lesser kestrel roosts and hunts in flocks, possibly so one bird can
learn from others where to find insect swarms.
Finally, there is safety in numbers at communal roosts since there will always be a
few birds awake at any given moment to give the alarm. But this increased protection is
partially counteracted by the fact that mass roosts attract predators and are especially
(25)
vulnerable if they are on the ground. Even those in trees can be attacked by birds of
prey. The birds on the edge are at greatest risk since predators find it easier to catch
small birds perching at the margins of the roost.
9. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) How birds find and store food
(B) How birds maintain body heat in the winter
(C) Why birds need to establish territory
(D) Why some species of birds nest together
10. The word conserve in line 3 is closest in meaning to
(A) retain
(B) watch
(C) locate
(D) share
11. Ptarmigan keep warm in the winter by
(A) huddling together on the ground with other birds
(B) building nests in trees
(C) burrowing into dense patches of vegetation

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